Kelp (Laminariales) are large brown seaweeds that grow in underwater forests, which provide habitats for a variety of marine life. Kelp grows incredibly fast and removes more CO2 than land forests do. Overfishing and overharvesting have led to the degradation of kelp forests. Other major factors which threaten kelp include marine pollution and the quality of water, climate changes and certain invasive species.
Kelp is farmed globally, though it is relatively new in Europe. It can be grown relatively easily with existing infrastructure. Kelp surface canopy can be harvested with boats several times per year. This is possible due to fast growth while the vegetative and reproductive parts are left undamaged.